Hubs, Switches and Routers form an important part of inter-networking. These play a very important role in forwarding of packets from a source to its destination.
Hubs, Switches and Routers can be considered the building blocks of a network.
In this article we will discuss the working and mechanism of operation of each of these entities.
- Hub works at Layer1 (Physical layer) of the OSI model.
- The Hub undertakes the forwarding decisions based on the bits which arrive into the hub.
- The bits of information coming in through some port of hub is transmitted across all other ports of the hub regardless of the information.
- It consists of a giant collision domain and a broadcast domain.
- Collisions are more.
- Switch works at Layer2 ( Data link Layer) of the OSI model.
- Forwarding decision is based on the MAC addresses.
- Basically the Switch learns the hosts connected to it and there respective MAC addresses and builds a MAC table which is looked up for future forwarding of packets.
- Switch is capable of simultaneous routing of many packets across different ports without collisions.
- It provides a dedicated route and bandwidth for each packet to be routed to its respective destination.
- If there are n ports then there are 'n' collision domains.
- Routers work at Layer3 (Network Layer) of the OSI Model.
- Routers take forwarding decisions based on the Logical addresses provided to a network.
- Routers maintain a routing table which consists of information which is used to route the packet to its destination.
- There is no broadcast propagation through routers.
- Routers are smarter than switches and hubs . They take their routing decisions based on numerous intelligent routing protocols.
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